Academic Exchange Quarterly Fall 2009 ISSN 1096-1453 Volume 13, Issue 3
To cite, use print source rather than this on-line version which may not reflect print copy format requirements or text lay-out and pagination.
This article should not be
reprinted for inclusion in any publication for sale without author's explicit
permission. Anyone may view, reproduce
or store copy of this article for personal, non-commercial use as allowed by
the "Fair Use" limitations (sections 107 and 108) of the U.S. Copyright law. For any other
use and for reprints, contact article's author(s) who may impose usage fee..
Critical-Service Learning Confronts Homelessness
Caro, Ed.D is Assistant Professor of Education, Porfilio, Ph.D., is Assistant Professor of Educational Leadership and Valeri, is a Lecture of Educational Foundations.
This essay documents the findings from a critical-service learning project. Through their experiences tutoring urban youths over two academic terms, four future teachers got beyond blaming urban children and their families for their struggles and the debilitated conditions impacting their community. They recognized the systemic nature associated with homelessness and poverty. They also recognized the need for educators to bring awareness to what forces cause homelessness. However, the cultural work at the shelter did not alter the perceptions of six pre-service teachers in relation to homelessness, social inequality, and teaching for social justice.
majority of citizens in the US, many scholars in the field of Critical White
Studies have documented that most White pre-service teachers hold a
pedestrian view of what accounts for the growing intensification of poverty and
homelessness within the US and across other social contexts (Sleeter, 1993;
Marx, 2004; McIntyre, 1997). We, three teacher educators, implemented a critical
service-learning project at a homeless shelter located within a decaying urban
community in the Northeastern part of the
In this paper,
first, we will briefly explore how neoliberalism has increased poverty and
homelessness in the
Neoliberalism and Homelessness
In the US, the
shift to having market imperatives guide social and political policies, to
eradicating the State’s role in providing entitlements for citizens, and to
giving corporations control over our social life has been largely responsible
for gutting social entitlements for the elderly and the impoverished, increased
incarceration of minoritized populations, and the swelling of abject poverty
and homelessness, especially within urban contexts (George, 1999; Giroux,
2004; Porfilio & Malott, 2008). The neoliberal agenda is responsible for
spawning the current economic crisis, which has has been particularly
pernicious for families with children in the
Neoliberalism and “
learning project was situated in “Casino City”, New Jersey, a community with a
population of approximately 39, 958 inhabitants (Job Tipster, 2008). Like many urban residents across US, the population in “
the average median household income in “
We called the critical
service-learning project, Teacher Training with a Mission (TTM). The project,
with a focus on bringing equity to children living in poverty, is unique to the
A total of ten male and female pre-service teachers took part in this research study. All of the participants identified as being White. They were willing to share their insights and perspectives in relation to what perpetuates homelessness, to the value of tutoring homeless children, and to the role schools and educators must play in extinguishing systemic barriers and subverting unjust practices that propel poverty, suffering and greed in “Casino City” and other urban contexts in North America. The participants gave their time, between six to ten hours per week, tutoring children in homeless shelter. They assisted children in the areas of academics, extracurricular activities, the arts, and informal counseling. Five participants also assisted the homeless youths’ parents in their preparation for the GED exam.
To complete this critical qualitative research study, data were collected using four processes. First, pre-service teachers completed a pre-survey on their reasons for joining the critical service-learning project. They detailed their expectations of working in a homeless shelter with homeless youths and their families, and highlighted what they perceived as barriers that homeless children face in becoming educated. Second, after each visit to the homeless shelter, the participants completed reflective journals on their experiences and thoughts in relation to tutoring children and working with families at the shelter. Third, upon completion of their service-work at the homeless shelter, the initial survey was recompleted to determine whether or not any changes occurred in their thoughts and attitudes towards homeless children and whether or not they held the critical capacity to recognize what constitutive forces, policies, and practices were responsible for the students’ and families’ unjust social realities. Finally, the pre-service teachers participated in a focus group interview with the researchers. The duration of the interview lasted approximately 40 minutes. The researchers elicited the participants’ thoughts, experiences and pedagogical practices in relation to tutoring homeless children and whether they recognized the structural dynamics responsible for the debilitating conditions faced by homeless people inside and outside of this context.
course of this study, we collected the participants’ journals and surveys to
help us make sense of whether their perspectives were altered in relation to
whether they recognized the social and economic forces causing poverty and
homelessness. Part of our analysis also consisted of determining whether the
participants incorrectly blamed the children and parents at the homeless
shelter for the struggles they faced and for the blighted conditions within “
White Pre-Service Teachers
scholars in the fields of multicultural education and Critical White Studies
have documented how White pre-service teachers’ view the nature of social
stratification in North American society (Marx, 2004; Sleeter, 1993, 2000;
McIntyre, 1997; Muller & O’Conner, 2007; Carr & Lund, 2007; Solomon
& Daniel, 2007). They tend to view the social fields in
In terms of schooling, White pre-service teachers tend to believe, incorrectly, that minoritized students and low-income students from the dominant culture perform poorly in school because they have “ limited intellectual abilities, linguistic shortcomings, lack of motivation to learn and immoral behavior” (Valencia, 1997, p. 2). For example, Marx (2004) documents how White pre-service teachers held pernicious views of ELL students’ linguistic capabilities, families’ home values, and intellectual capabilities, when they conducted fieldwork in the Southwestern part of the
. They felt the aforementioned factors, rather than systemic inequalities, were responsible for the students’ poor academic performance. US
Service-Learning and Teacher Education
Wade (2007) defines community service-learning as community-based service activities with an integration of academic skills and structured reflection on that service and its connection to course content (Mitchell, 2007). In the field of education, service-learning programs have extensively grown in K-12 classrooms across the nation as well as in college and universities, and seek to be used as a mechanism for promoting students’ self-esteem and civic responsibility (Wade, 2007). It is one key pedagogical approach that has been used in schools of education to push White pre-service teachers to have positive views of minorities students’ culture, to recognize the constitutive factors and unjust practices inside and outside of K-12 classrooms that account for impoverished students’ poor educational performance, and to recognize the importance of schoolteachers working actively outside the classroom to dismantle social inequalities. Unfortunately, many service-learning programs have failed to broaden the perspectives of pre-service teachers so as to position them to hold socially just educational personas. This method of community service is often neglectful as it pushes pre-service teachers to view charity as the solution to the economic marginalization of impoverished youths and families, without critically examining the root causes of institutional classism, racism, and homelessness and their concomitant effects on the intellectual performance of minoritized youths (Wade, 2007).
Fortunately, over the past twelve years, several scholars and practitioners have recognized the limitations of service-learning. They have taken the traditional concept of service-learning and reconfigured it to be “critical service-learning.” This form of service-learning is embedded with a social justice orientation and a commitment to guiding pre-service teachers to develop the skills, ideas, and attributes necessary to foster social justice and equity in K-12 schools and other contexts (Mitchell, 2007). It pushes pre-service teachers past doing simple volunteer work and meeting school course requirements; rather, critical scholars illustrate how service-learning can be transgressive when future teachers are asked to question the distribution of power in society as well as asked to reflect on ‘Why are conditions like this in the first place?’ rather than ‘How can we help these people?’(Mitchell, 2007). Critical-service learning projects also ask in-service and pre-service teachers to examine what gives rise to social inequalities and to analyze the persistence of “systemic barriers that thwart the achievement of students coming from marginalized backgrounds” (Brathwaite & Porfilio, 2004). They also attempt to forge authentic relationships between higher education institutions and the community served (Mitchell, 2007; Wade, 2007; Swaminathan, 2007).
service-learning project presented in this article was designed to permit the
future teachers at “
As we will illustrate below, the coursework, along with the critical-service project, was only moderately successfully in preparing future teachers to possess the critical insight and courage necessary to join the emancipatory project to eliminate oppression at today’s historical juncture.
Homelessness and the Perception of Deficits
Through the participants’ initial surveys and journal reflections, it became apparent that eight participants held the hegemonic view of why homeless youths and their families are impoverished and required the homeless shelter to provide them with food, clothing, and living quarters. They, like the majority of US citizens, believed the homeless youths and their families embraced values and character traits that perpetuated their economic and social marginalization, rather than viewing their social and economic marginality as a product of unjust social and economic structures that are inextricably linked to plundering humanity and the environment. The virulent narrative that has been internalized by most
citizens and most schoolteachers holds that poverty emanates from the “Other” holding a poor work ethic, from lacking motivation to succeed in schools or in the working world, or upholding values and dispositions that are not in line with the dominant culture. (Prins & Schafft, 2009, p. 2). The narrative, therefore, also upholds Whiteness as the social marker that confers intelligence and social and economic power to people in North American society. Seemingly, this means that poverty could be washed away if people who are marginalized by their racial class status deconstructed their identities and embraced attributes and characteristics, such as intelligence, work ethic, positive view of schooling, language, and stable family structures, which have been socially attached to the White middle-class strata in the US since the 17th century. US
Deficits in Intelligence and Work Ethic
For example, five of the participants embraced the virulent narrative associated with being impoverished or homeless in the
. Their comments indicate that they feel homeless children and their families might not be as intelligent or hardworking as compared to people who embrace values supposedly attached to the White middle-class, or who seemingly are enlightened by merely their dominant racial position. After her first foray of tutoring homeless children, Grace implied that the youths’ cultural background perpetuated their lack of focus and lack of drive to succeed in school, rather than questioning the neoliberal policies and practices inhibiting their ability and/or lack of drive to succeed in school. Unlike their more affluent White peers, she felt the underprivileged children lack the ability to “concentrate and train their brains.” Janet also held a deficit view of children in poverty. She equated their marginalized subject position with a lack of intelligence. She felt that being impoverished prevents homeless youths to have “intelligent people around them.” To further their pedestrian views of homeless youths and what fuels some of their social dislocation inside and outside of K-12 classrooms, Katie, in a focus group session, suggested her Whiteness gave her the power to “further (her) education and her work ethic, whereas minoritized youths’ cultural background a priori prevents them from having this “type of drive and easily distracts them and makes them give up so easily (in school). This is unfortunate.” US
Three other participants’ initial journal reflections also illustrate that they held prefigured views of how homeless youths’ perceived themselves and whether they held any redeemable social qualities associated with having a positive self-concept. For instance, Jimmy’s narrative is representative of three participants’ comments. He was surprised that homeless children had a “positive attitude and grateful outlook on life, and were capable of loving.” What Jimmy’s narrative failed to say is equally important for how he viewed homeless youths. It seems that he expected them to be depressed, withdrawn, lack enthusiasm, and be incapable of developing caring and supporting relationships with each other and their tutors.
Deficit in families and of values surrounding schooling
critical service-learning studies, which have mined pre-service teachers’
perceptions of tutoring minoritized youths, six of the participants’ initial
narratives also suggest that they felt the homeless parents’ cultural
background was a detriment in positioning their children to succeed in school
(Marx, 2004; Sleeter, 1993, 2000; Valencia, 1997). Andy mistakenly believed
that education was not high on the parents’ “list of priorities,” rather than
pointing out that many parents at the shelter wanted to provide their children
with the best education possible so as to help them grow emotionally,
intellectually, and socially through the schooling process. Judy also notes
that homeless youths’ families fail to make education a priority at home because
the children’s “moms are off worrying about themselves,” instead of taking a
“strict role-model approach” to helping their children succeed in school. She, like her pre-service teacher counterpart
Andy, also fails to see how debilitating conditions within “
“I feel sorry for these kids:” White Guilt perpetuating a “White Savior” Approach to Ameliorating Homelessness
Since none of the participants encountered the stark social conditions faced by homeless youths and their families in “Casino City”, many of them started to take inventory, possibly for the first time, of how their racial class status shielded them from having to endure pain and alienation experienced by impoverished people at the homeless shelter in particular and in other debilitated social contexts in general. However, there are often risks associated with having White future teachers unpack the unearned privileges they accrue from occupying privilege subject positions along the structural axes of race, class, gender or sexuality. As several transformative scholars note, when White pre-service teachers decenter their racial, class, gender or sexual privilege, they often become sadden or feel guilty that the social and economic structures of North American society function to oppress most citizens, while operating simultaneously to privilege people who control the means of production, who hold the power over knowledge production in various discursive sites or who are shielded, due to their skin color or gendered status, from grappling with systemic barriers and unjust practices (Sleeter , 1993, 2000, McIntyre, 1997; Lawerence &Tatum, 2005; Marx, 2004). In this case, having a mole’s-eye view of how the larger social structure oppresses many families and children of color in “Casino City”, led several of the participants to feel “bad,” “tremendously sorry,” and wished they “could do more” for the people inhabiting the homeless shelter. However, the modus operandi of their tutoring and mentoring work was very similar to that of other White middle-class reformers who set their sights on “uplifting” the poor in urban contexts in the age of industrial capitalism in the US. It was about validating their own apparent sense of goodness and righteousness and reinforcing their belief in the myth that the social and economic structures are fair and open, instead of thinking of creative ways to work with the “Other” to challenge the social and economic status quo and to build a society that is predicated on eradicating racism, classism, and other unjust formations.
In the tutors’ jaundiced eyes, impoverished peoples can be just like them, so long as they mirror the values and behaviors that supposedly kept the tutors out of poverty and put them on the course to become educators. The tutors’ actions in and of themselves seemingly have the power to create an angelic path to lift their tutees out of poverty. The tutors seem to perceive that their privileged racial and class position affords them “god-like qualities”. According to several participants, their tutoring is “like heaven because we are one of the few who care,” it instills in children “an intrinsic level of motivation when it comes to education, it has the power to help children “succeed in life,” and it will give children “social skills and self-confidence” that the participants seemly garnered from their privileged racial class background.
Raising Awareness and Disrupting Stereotypes: Pre-service teachers’ newfound perspectives of homeless families, youths, and homelessness
During the start
of the second semester of their tutoring, four pre-service teachers began to
reconceptualize their perceptions in relation to the youths and their families
located at “
Three participants also made the important link that abject conditions, such as lack of food, clothing, safe or permanent living quarters, transportation, educational resources in and outside K-12 classrooms, hinder youths’ ability to socialize and to learn. They no longer held a deficit view of the urban youths and their families’ attitudes, character traits, and values, and no longer “blamed the victims” for the oppression they grappled within the shelter and within their daily lives. (Valencia, 1997; Huus, 2009). For instance, they will now consider “students’ situations outside of school before labeling them as the disruptive kids in class,” will “look at a situation in the community or how homelessness affects kids’ performance in the classroom,” and will “look at the whole picture to determine what is causing students to misbehave.”
Finally, one future teacher provided a deeper level of analysis in relation to what steps must be taken to bludgeon structural impediments that foster poverty in various urban communities. She also appeared to hold a socially-just persona. She recognized that schoolteachers must work with other concerned citizens to eliminate social inequalities in K-12 classrooms and in the wider society. For instance, during the focus group session, she noted that the educational and social systems in North America must be altered to build a participatory democracy at the “grassroots” level, where the social and economic concerns of all people are considered, where policies are created to “meet the needs of citizens”, and where the purpose of education is designed to “produce critical thinking adults who will eventually participate in this world and in a democratic society”. She also believes that schoolteachers must join other cultural workers outside the classroom to eliminate poverty, to create a curriculum that is relevant to urban youths’ lives, and to make homeless youths aware of how North American social structures operate to cause social and economic problems in their communities.
Lessons from the Project and Future Directions
critical service-learning project proved instrumental in helping four
pre-service teachers understand the systemic nature of homelessness and in
developing an appreciation for homeless children and their families, the
project did not position six pre-service teachers to recognize the social
forces responsible for poverty and for homelessness. It also did not make them
aware that educators must strive to eliminate oppression inside and outside of
their classrooms if schools are to become beacons of democracy and social
justice during the 21st century. The most immediate barrier to
guiding White pre-service teachers to become stewards of social and cultural
transformation is the failure of “
Another instrumental barrier in the process of helping future teachers develop socially-just personas is providing them with a more ecumenical view of urban communities, one that not only makes them aware of the social arrangements causing oppression in these contexts, but also encourages them to recognize the strengths and assets of communities rather than viewing their problems (Sleeter & Montecinos, 1999; Sleeter, 2000). This type of perspective is needed to help future teachers view their students, parents, and community members as critical subjects who hold the capacity to build movements of solidarity against the neoliberal agenda. It is also needed for them to learn the importance of crossing race and class borders to engage in true dialogue with students and to form equalitarian partnerships with urban communities. This will ensure that all constituents are involved in community-based learning projects (Sleeter & Montecinos, 1999, p.114). For instance, Stovall (2006, p. 100) illustrates how two community groups, which are located on Chicago’s southwest, had the power to overcome the unjust schooling experiences afforded to their children. The children were force to attend dilapidated, segregated, and overcrowded buildings without either their parents’ or guardians’ voices influencing the schooling process. Schoolteachers engaged in an authentic dialogue with the constituents to determine what role they ought to play in improving the children’s schooling experiences. They assisted in creating an educational initiative, which was reflective of the needs and concerns of students, parents and other community members, to build a well-funded, neighborhood high school. This school reflected the values of the community-based partnership, as it was centered on the values of “democracy, community, ownership, and self-discipline” rather than on the ideals associated with commercialized schooling, such as competition, consumerism, and rugged individualism.
To embolden the critical service-learning experience at “Casino College”, we have shared our findings with colleagues, administrators, and pre-service teachers at the institution and have connected with community leaders in “Casino City”. The process to guide future teachers to recognize the constitutive forces behind homelessness, the importance, to take inventory of what causes social inequalities within schools and other contexts, and the need to join collective movements to build an equalitarian world will be arduous since many of the teacher educators at “Casino College”, like teachers educators within most schools of education, have failed themselves to recognize the need to prepare future teachers to glean how neoliberal polices and practices are cutting the humane nature of education, perpetuating economic and social dislocation in urban contexts, and spawning social relations of oppression across the globe (Hinchey & Cadiero-Kaplan, 2005; McLaren, 2005; Porfilio & Yu, 2006; Porfilio, 2007). Moreover, the administration at the “Casino College” has also questioned the feasibility of revamping the teacher education program, so that a socially-just perspective is infused in all coursework and in all service-learning activities. They believe that this will require adding additional courses to the program designated for pre-service teachers. The additional coursework may ultimately decrease enrollment and cut into the College’s profits. Some prospective pre-service teachers may opt to enroll in other teacher education programs in New Jersey to obtain their teaching credentials, as the requirements at these institutions would be less burdensome.
Despite some of the challenges we have faced in modifying the service-learning project and teacher education program, we have continued to take steps to guide more future teachers to adopt socially-just personas. For instance, we have begun to design a mission statement and coursework that are reflective of the need to prepare future teachers to excavate social class inequalities in their classrooms, to engage in true dialogue and formulate authentic relationships with oppressed community members, and to question how neoliberal policies impact their lives and their views of students. We have also invited various contingencies from “Casino City” to share their stories of how neoliberal capitalism has intensified suffering and dislocation in their community as well as to suggest how future teachers can join them to design initiatives, which have the power to ameliorate their schools and community. Clearly, the struggle to prepare future teachers to become transformative intellectuals will continue to be difficult, but it is needed if we are to end the destructive path of neoliberalism, the ideological doctrine insidiously responsible for the class-based oppression present in “Casino City” and the pain, suffering and misery girding social relationships across the planet.
This essay shows that critical-service learning initiatives have the power to guide some White pre-service teachers to recognize that poverty, homelessness, and urban decay are perpetuated by neoliberal capitalism, instead of being fostered by urban children and their families’ culture, intellect, language, or home values. The students also developed a newfound appreciation for homeless youths’ intellectual capabilities. They now consider their students’ backgrounds as resources to fostering a learning environment conducive to ensuring all children learn, rather than viewing their students’ backgrounds as deficits that merely inhibit them from learning. One pre-service teacher also developed a deeper analysis of what perpetuates social inequalities and recognized the immediate need for educators to teach for social and personal transformation in K-12 classrooms.
Yet, the majority of participants in this study failed to dislodge their view of social stratification. They view poverty and homelessness as individual phenomena and blamed homeless children and their families for the social conditions in “Casino City,” for poverty, and for being homelessness. They also failed to acknowledge that poverty and homelessness can only be eliminated if educators, their students and other citizens aim to eradicate social class inequalities.
Finally, the project shows that schools of education must strive to link a social-justice perspective to all coursework and in all service-learning activities. That is, if future teachers are to understand what causes social inequalities, to hold a positive view of homeless youths, and to eradicate injustice through their teaching and cultural work.
 Scholars in the field of critical white studies have examined how whiteness is socially and historically constructed within institutions in Western society. They also make sense of how the racial identity of social actors who are considered White often block them from recognizing how the institutions in Western society confer unearned power and privilege on the basis of race, class, gender, and sexuality.
 Casino College, Casino City and Casino Press are all pseudonyms. Names of the academic institution, city and newspaper have been changed to protect the privacy of our informants.
 We believed
that critical qualitative research must be a transformative endeavor. Like
Kincheloe and McLaren (2000, p. 291). Critical qualitative research must
confront “injustice of a particular society”. Here the critical
service-learning project is designed to bring awareness to the role neoliberal
policies and practices are playing and perpetuating homelessness in urban
contexts across the
 The Othering
process in the
instance, during the Victorian Era in the
Brathwaite, F. & Porfilio, B. (2004).A School-Based Project: Increasing Ontario Pre-
Service Teacher Candidates’ Experiences with Cultural Diversity. Networks:
Online Journal for Teacher
Research 7(2). Retrieved
Carr, P. R &
Privilege and Identity in Education.
Cuban, S., &
Institutionalizing Service-Learning from a Social Justice Perspective at
Feagin, J. R.
about Effectively Preparing Teachers Who Can Teach Everyone’s Children,
Journal of Teacher Education, 57, 292-299.
George, S. (1999). A short history of neoliberalism. Conference on Economic
Sovereignty in a Globalising World
Giroux, H. (2004). The terror of neoliberalism: Authoritarianism and the eclipse of
Hinchey, P. & Cadiero-Kaplan, K. (2005). The future of teacher education and
teaching: Another piece of the privatization puzzle. The Journal for Critical
Education Policy Studies, 3 (2). Retrieved, September 27, 2005, from
Hoganson, K. (2001). "As badly off as the Filipinos": U.S. women suffragists and the
imperial issue at the turn of the twentieth century. Journal of Women’s
History 13(2), 9-33.
Huus, K. (2009, March 2). ‘Tidal wave’ of homeless students hits schools:
Schools districts across U.S. struggling to pay for needs of uprooted
kids. Msnbc. Retrieved March 4th, 2009, from
Jenkins, A. F. (2008, August 25th). Stockton College’s Equity & Social Justice
Conference Speaks to a Changing Paradigm. Hispanic Outlook, 32-34.
Job Tipster (2008, November 16th). “Casino City Jobs”. Retrieved October 8th,
Kincheloe, J. L., & McLaren, P. (2000). Rethinking critical theory and qualitative
research. In N. K.Denzin & Y. S. Lincoln (Eds.), Handbook of Qualitative
Research: Second Edition (pp. 279-314). Thousand Oaks: Sage.
Lawrence, S. M. & Tatum, B. D. (2005). White Racial Identity and Anti-Racist
Education: A Catalyst for Change. In E. Lee (Ed.), Beyond Heroes and
Holidays: A Practical Guide to K-12 Anti-Racist, Multicultural Education and
Staff Development (pp. 45-52). Maryland: Teaching for Change.
Marx, S. (2004). Regarding Whiteness: Exploring and Intervening in the Effects of
White Racism in Teacher Education. Equity & Excellence in Education, 37,
McIntyre, A. (1997). Making Meaning of Whiteness: Exploring Racial Identity with
White Teachers. Albany: State University of New York Press.
McLaren, P. L. (2005). Capitalist and Conquerors: A Critical Pedagogy against
Empire. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc.
Mitchell, T. D. (2007). Critical Service-Learning as Social Justice Education: A Case
Study of the Citizen Scholars Program. Equity & Excellence in Education, 40,
Muller, J. & O’Conner, C. (August 2007). Telling and retelling about self and “others”
How pre-service teachers (re)interpret privilege and disadvantage in one
college classroom. Teaching and Teacher Education, 23(6), 840-856.
National Center on Family Homelessness. (2009). State Report Card on Child
Homelessness: America’s Youngest Outcasts. Retrieved July 1, 2009, from
National Coalition for the Homeless. (2008, June). How Many People Experience
Homelessness? NCH Fact Sheet #2. Retrieved October 8, 2008, from
National Coalition for the Homeless. (2008, June). Homeless Families with
Children: NCH Fact Sheet #12. Retrieved October 8, 2008, from
Porfilio, B. & Yu, T. (2006). Students as consumer: A critical narrative of
the commercialization of teacher education.
The Journal for Critical Education Policy Studies 4(1). Retrieved January 25,
Porfilio, B. (2007). White female teachers and technology education: Reproducing the
status quo. In Paul Carr and Darren Lund’s (Eds.). The Great White North?
Exploring Whiteness, privilege, and identity in education in Canada. The
(pp. 173-188). Netherlands: Sense Publications.
Porfilio, B. & Malott, C.(Eds.). (2008). The destructive path of neoliberalism: An
International examination of education. Netherlands: Sense Publications.
Prins, E. & Schafft, K. A. (2009). Individual and Structural Attributions for
Poverty and Persistence in Family Literacy Programs: The Resurgence
of the Culture of Poverty, Teachers College Record, 111(9).
Retrieved January 30, 2009 from
Sleeter, C.E. (1993). How White teachers construct race. In C. McCarthy
& W. Crichlow (Eds.), Race, Identity and Representation in Education
(pp. 243-256), New York: Routledge.
Sleeter, C.E. (2000). Strengthening Multicultural Education with Community-Based
Service Learning. In C. R. O'Grady (Ed.), Integrating service learning and
multicultural education in colleges and universities (pp. 263-276). Mahwah,
New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Sleeter, C. & Montecinos, C. (1999). Forging Partnerships for Multicultural Teacher
Education. In S. May (Ed.), Critical Multiculturalism: Rethinking Multicultural and Antiracist Education (pp. 113-138). Philadelphia, PA: Falmer Press.
Solomon, R. P., & Daniel, B. M. (2007). Discourses on Race and “White Privilege” in
the Next Generation of Teachers. In P. R. Carr & D. E. Lund (Eds.), The Great
White North? Exploring Whiteness, Privilege and Identity in Education
(pp. 161-172). Rotterdam: Sense Publishers.
Stovall, D. (2006). From Hunger Strike to High School: Youth Development,
Social Justice, and School Formation. In S. GinWright, P. Noguera, &
J. Cammarota (Eds.), Beyond Resistance! Youth Activism and Community
Change: New Democratic Possibilities for Practice and Policy for America’s
Youth (pp. 97-110). New York: Routledge.
Swamination, R. (2007). Educating for the ‘Real World”: The Hidden Curriculum
of Community-Service Learning. Equity & Excellence in Education, 40, 134-
The Press of “Casino City”. (2005, July 17). Families are the fastest- growing
segment of the homeless. Retrieved October 21, 2008, from
Valencia, R. (1997). Conceptualizing the notion of deficit thinking. In R. Valencia
(Ed.), The evolution of deficit thinking: Educational thought and practice.
Wade, R. C. (2007). Service- Learning for Social Justice in the Elementary
Classrooms: Can We Get There from Here? Equity & Excellence in Education,